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Entry  27 Nov 2015, Konstantin Olchanski, Info, updated: note on midas history 
    Reply  24 Aug 2015, Konstantin Olchanski, Info, note on midas history 
    Reply  01 Sep 2015, Konstantin Olchanski, Info, note on midas history 
Message ID: 1147     Entry time: 27 Nov 2015     Reply to this: 1101   1105
Author: Konstantin Olchanski 
Topic: Info 
Subject: updated: note on midas history 
(update: resolve all FIXMEs, document the breakup of "structured banks")

This note documents the workings of the midas history.

There is 2 separate history sections: equipment history and links history.

* is equipment history enabled?

For each equipment, history is controlled by the value of /eq/xxx/common/period:

0 = history disabled
1 = history is enabled
>1 = history is enabled, throttled down

The throttling is implemented in log_history()/watch_history() by this algorithm:
the very first history event is recorded, then all changed to the data are ignored until
"period" seconds has elapsed. Then the next history event will be recorded, and following
changes will be ignored until "period" second elapses, and so forth. Period value "1" has
special meaning - there is no throttling, all history events are logged.

If equipment history is enabled, history events are created by parsing the content of /eq/xxx/variables.

* what is history events?

A "history event" is a history atomic unit of data. Associated with each history event is a timestamp (unix time),
a name (limited to NAME_LENGTH in the old history) and a list of history tags that describe the individual data
values inside the history event.

When making history plots in mhttpd, for each curve on the plot, one selects a history event (from the list
of currently active events, recently active events or the list of all events that ever existed), then from the list of tags
inside the history event one selects the particular variable that will be plotted.

In the old MIDAS history, all history events are written into one history file (.hst file + optional .def and .idx event definition and time index files
which can be/are regenerated automatically from the .hst file). History events are identified by 16-bit history event IDs, the persistent mapping
from history event names and the 16-bit history event IDs is stored in ODB /History/Events. In addition the list of all known history event tags is
stored in ODB /History/Tags. For per-equipment history, the 16-bit history event ID is the value of ODB "/eq/xxx/common/event id".

In the SQL history (MySQL, SQLITE, etc), each history event is an SQL table. The history event tags are the SQL table columns.

In the new FILE history, each history event is written into a separate file, tag definition are recorded in text formal in the file header, history event
data is appended to the file in binary format (fixed record size). If the history event definition is changed, a new file will be started.

* how are history events constructed?

The mlogger creates history events in open_history() by parsing ODB /eq/xxx/variables. Each ODB entry under "variables" is referred to as a "variable".

Each variable can be a single ODB value, an array of ODB values, or a subdirectory (corresponding to TID_STRUCT structured data banks). As each variable
is processed, one or more tags are created to describe it. Single ODB values will generally produce a single tag, while arrays can produce
one single tag - describing the whole array - or multiple tags - one per array element - depending whether the array is "named" or not.

The code can generate two types of history:
- "per-equipment" history will have the tags for all variables concatenated together into one single history event
- "per-variable" history will have one history event defined for each variable. Inside could be one tag - for single odb values and unnamed arrays - or multiple tags - for named arrays and structured data 

Per-equipment history is the original MIDAS history implementation.

Per-variable history was added to permit efficient data storage in SQL tables. It's initial implementation used 1 ODB hotlink for each variable and it was easy to exceed the maximum permitted number of 
ODB hotlinks (db_open_record()).

To reduce consumption of hotlinks, db_watch() has been implemented and now per-variable history only uses 1 ODB hotlink per equipment.

With db_watch, per-equipment history is no longer available. per-variable history is the new default (and the only option).

* how are the history event tags constructed?

(quirk - single odb values are treated as arrays of length "1")

FIXME: single odb values should be treated as such, /eq/xxx/settings/names should not be applied

(quirk - "string" ODB entries are not permitted)

FIXME - single odb values of type TID_STRING should be possible with SQL, FILE and MIDAS history. arrays of strings is impossible "struct TAG" does not have a data field for string length - only n_data and 
item length implied through it's TID.

History event tags are constructed in the mlogger add_equipment().

For variables of type TID_KEY (subdirectories, corresponding to TID_STRUCT structured banks), one tag is generated for each subdirectory entry. Tag names for /eq/xxx/var/aaa/bbb will be "aaa_bbb". 
(with an underscore).

FIXME: subdirectory entries of type TID_KEY and TID_LINK should be explicitly forbidden.
FIXME: TID_KEY could be supported by replacing db_get_data() with db_get_record() in watch_history().
FIXME: TID_LINK could be supported by adding db_watch() on the link target.

For named arrays, individual tags are generated for each array element. Tag names are taken from the names array. For empty tag names (empty names array), tags are "aaa_0", "aaa_1", etc (for 
/eq/xxx/var/aaa). For "single names" arrays, tag names have the variable name appended (with a space), for /eq/xxx/var/aaa and an empty names array, tags will be "aaa_0 aaa", "aaa_1 aaa", etc. For 
populated names array, the tags will be "name0 aaa", "name1 aaa", etc.

For unnamed arrays and single odb variables (in ODB, single odb variables are arrays of length 1), a single tag is generated.

For TID_LINK variables what happens? FIXME!

FIXME: support TID_LINK variables by correctly parsing the link target and setting a db_watch() on the link target.

Named arrays have a "Names" entry in /eq/xxx/settings. For example, to add names to /eq/xxx/var/aaa, create a string array "/eq/xxx/settings/names aaa". The names array should be at least as long as 
the corresponding data array. Individual entries in the names array can be left blank (tag names will be "aaa_0", "aaa_1", etc). Duplicate tag names are not permitted.

A single "Names" entry can be created to name all arrays in variables with the same names ("single names"). Create /eq/xxx/settings/names" and arrays /eq/xxx/var/aaa and /eq/xxx/var/bbb will have 
history tags "name0 aaa", "name1 aaa", "name0 bbb", "name1 bbb", etc. If "names" are left blank, tag names will be "aaa_0 aaa", "aaa_1 aaa", "bbb_0 bbb", "bbb_1 bbb", etc.

In the mhttpd variables viewer, "single name" arrays are displayed in a 2D table.

* /history/links history

History events are created for each entry under /history/links.

Two types of links are permitted:

/history/links/aaa is a link to a subdirectory: db_watch() is setup to watch this subdirectory, tags are created for each subdirectory entry (1 tag per entry). There is no possibility for naming array elements, so 1 tag per array, regardless of the number of elements.

/history/links/bbb is a subdirectory with links to odb values: db_watch is setup to watch each link target, tags are created for each link (1 tag per link). tag name is the link name (NOT the target name). There is no possibility for naming array elements.

FIXME: Mixing links and subdirectories is not permitted, but could be done - additional db_watch() will need to be done on any links.

Update period history events created for /history/links is controlled by entries in "/history/links periods". Numeric values of periods are same as for equipment histories. Numeric value 0 disables the history for a particular event.

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